The McDonnell-Douglas MD-80

I

Fuselage stretchability, naturally integrated in the fundamental DC-9 style, had actually defined its program, leading to 4 dimensionally divergent, higher-capacity variations, consisting of the initially-elongated DC-9-30 over the standard series-- 10/14/15, the subsequent DC-9-40, and the last DC-9-50, the latter accommodating 49 more travelers than the twin-jet's initial optimum.

The DC-9 itself, established upon the 4 style tenets of durability, simpleness, dependability, and low-cost, had actually been McDonnell-Douglas's very popular industrial airplane-- a lot so, in truth, that it removed or landed someplace on the planet every 7 seconds, serving more than 570 cities with some 6,050 everyday flights, and by 1979, the cumulative fleet had actually brought more than one billion travelers and logged more than 18 million hours with a practically 99-percent dispatch dependability rate.

Its Pratt and Whitney JT8D engine, the most commonly utilized powerplant and numbering in excess of 12,000 systems, had actually not just offered propulsive thrust for all variations of the DC-9, however had actually likewise powered the Boeing 727, the Sud-Aviation SE.210 Super Caravelle, the Boeing 737, and the Dassault-Breguet Mercure 100.

Both the DC-9's fundamental style and its JT8D turbofan for that reason provided the most optimal, economical platform on which to base a larger-capacity follower, which had to equate to the DC-9-30's variety ability, yet surpass the DC-9-50's economics.

Its fuselage, not having actually reached its limitation of stretchability, provided itself to still higher-capacity lodging, however its challenge had actually been a powerplant of adequate thrust to preserve appropriate payload, variety, and efficiency specifications for its operators.

Based upon the earlier, two-stage JT3D, which had actually powered both the 707 and the DC-8, the JT8D, a low, one-to-one bypass ratio turbofan, had very first operate on April 7, 1961, requiring to the skies for the very first time on Might 1 of the list below year installed to a 707. Getting FAA accreditation on February 9, 1963, as the 14,000 thrust-pound JT8D-1, it had actually powered the 727-100 prior to being utilized by the DC-9-10 and was consequently provided in a number of successively higher-thrust variations, the last which had actually been the 17,400 thrust-pound JT8D-17R.

A new-generation variation, offering application for a supreme DC-9 stretch and designated JT8D-109, had actually been among 6 presentation powerplants integrating bigger, single-stage fans established for NASA's Quiet Engine Program, which had actually run in between 1972 and 1975, and 2 of its variations had actually logged more than 50 hours retrofitted to a customized DC-9-32. Style of an additional advancement, the 18,500 thrust-pound JT8D-209, started in 1974 and initially ran 2 years later on, test flown on a McDonnell-Douglas Advanced Medium STOL Transportation (AMST) in March of 1977.

Although a brand-new, supercritical wing had actually likewise at first been thought about, the airplane, meant for brief- to medium-range sectors which involved greater ratios of climb-and-descent to real cruise profiles, might not completely make use of such a brand-new style, its advantages resultantly not able to validate its greater advancement expenses.|A brand-new, supercritical wing had actually likewise at first been thought about, the airplane, meant for brief- to medium-range sectors which involved greater ratios of climb-and-descent to real cruise profiles, might not completely make use of such a brand-new style, its advantages resultantly not able to validate its greater advancement expenses. The existing DC-9 wing, integrating root and idea extensions and customized high-lift gadgets, would offer the needed efficiency, economy, and variety specifications.

A number of preliminary versions, mainly based upon the DC-9-50 and all including fuselage stretches for greater capabilities, larger-area wings, and 2 refanned turbofans, had actually consisted of the refan-stretched DC-9-50RS, the refan-super extended DC-9-50RSS, the DC-9-55, and the DC-9-60, while a DC-9QSF, meant for Japanese operators as an NAMC YS-11 twin turboprop replacement, mated a DC-9-40 airframe with 2 18,000 thrust-pound JT8D-209 engines and a two-foot bigger wing, allowing the 114,000-pound airplane to run from 4,000-foot runways with 120 travelers.

Nevertheless, expense restrictions and style intricacies determined an easier, more simple variation which integrated the longer fuselage, increased-area wings, and JT8D-209 turbofans, yet kept cockpit commonness with all previous DC-9 variations.|Expense restrictions and style intricacies determined an easier, more simple variation which integrated the longer fuselage, increased-area wings, and JT8D-209 turbofans, yet kept cockpit commonness with all previous DC-9 variations. Avoiding both the DC-9-60 and DC-9-70 series, the conclusive airplane, designated DC-9-80-- or DC-9 Super 80, to more precisely show the designated year of service inauguration-- had actually been introduced on October 20, 1977 with the invoice of 27 company and 13 optioned orders from Swissair, Austrian Airline companies, and Southern Airways, together with a letter of intent from LAV Lineas Aeropostal Venezolanas, all which had actually been previous DC-9 operators. Visualized as a higher-capacity enhance to its DC-9 airframe and a replacement for higher-cost tri-jets, it meant to offer service in developing markets whose ecological and sound limitations had actually prevented larger-capacity devices alternative, the airplane providing a considerably smaller sized sound footprint, higher variety and capability, and the most affordable seat-mile expenses of any similar twin-jet.

Inning accordance with then-President of the Douglas Airplane Business, John C. Brizendine, "Recently ... we have actually ended up being acutely familiar with the have to save energy, to safeguard the environment, and to produce increasingly more financially effective airplane. (The DC-9 Super 80) is particularly developed to satisfy the requirements of our market for many years to come. These consist of ecological compatibility, energy effectiveness, cost-effective operation, and a roomy, comfy interior."

McDonnell-Douglas took pride in the airplane, "The DC-9 Super 80 is a mix of tested style with offered low-risk innovation for improved efficiency, (however) the exceptional DC-9 dependability and lower operating expense are preserved."

Although it had actually been based upon this earlier-generation twin, it nonetheless presented a number of sophisticated functions.

| It had actually been based upon this earlier-generation twin, it nonetheless presented a number of sophisticated functions.

A fuselage stretch, achieved by ways of an eight-frame plug forward of the wing and a single-frame insertion aft of it, led to a 147.10-foot general length, increasing optimal capability to 172, or 33 more than the DC-9-50 and a shocking 82 more than the preliminary DC-9-10, and producing the most enormously extended industrial airliner as much as that time. The forward, left, and aft, forward, exits, both geared up with extendible airstairs, had actually been kept, however an aft, left maintenance door, situated just feet from the engine, had actually been presented. Aeritalia of Naples, Italy, produced its fuselage panels.

A brand-new, 10.6-foot center area and two-foot parallel-chord suggestion extensions, leading to the 3rd dimensionally divergent DC-9 wing, yielded a 28-percent location, 57-percent fuel capability, and 11-percent effectiveness boost. Determining 107 feet, 10 1/4 inches, the airfoil, with a 24-degree sweepback at its quarter chord, a 9.62 element ratio, 3 degrees of dihedral, and a 1,239 square-foot location, had actually been consisted of 4 per-wing precision-machined skin panels which had actually been changed from 14,000-pound ingots determining 60 inches broad, 15 inches long, and 30 inches thick by the Reynolds Metal Business of McCook, Illinois. The all-metal, two-spar structure, with riveted spanwise stringers, included full-span, three-position leading edge slats with a brand-new, intermediate setting to reduce remove drag and enhance climb efficiency at greater gross weights; bigger, doubled-slotted, tracking edge flaps which covered 67 percent of the period and reduced the airplane's stalling speed; 3 spoiler panels, the external 2 which were employable as both flight and ground lift dumpers; and ailerons. All however the latter were hydraulically activated, while the ailerons themselves were by hand run. An underwing vortillon fence guaranteed appropriate air flow. Offering 1,520 United States gallons of extra fuel tankage, it likewise provided an increased-area primary undercarriage bay.

The variable-incidence, electrically-actuated horizontal tail, covering 40.2 feet, or 3.6 feet moreover of the DC-9-50, kept the style's particular t-tail setup and sported assister tab-equipped elevators, while the vertical fin, rendering a general airplane height of 30.2 feet, included a hydraulically-actuated rudder. It had actually been 1.4 feet greater than the DC-9-50's.

Its Pratt and Whitney JT8D-209 turbofan, installed on either side of the aft fuselage and keeping the initial target-type thrust reversers, was based upon the core of the earlier JT8D-9, however presented a 49-inch larger fan and a sophisticated, low-pressure compressor, producing 18,500 pounds of thrust together with an extra 750 pounds of automated power reserve (APR), produced throughout engine-loss conditions. The larger-diameter, single-stage fan, owning a bigger mass of hot core section-bypassing air, combined with more effective cold and hot exit duct intermixing air, and increased sound absorption product in its nacelle and surrounding housing, yielded various enhancements, inclusive of increased thrust ability; a greater bypass ratio-- of 1:1.78 instead of the earlier JT8D's 1:1; a lower exit speed; an 11-percent reduction in particular fuel usage; and a considerably smaller sized sound footprint than that of the medium-range tri-jets it had actually been meant to change.

Utilizing weight-reducing Kevlar-reinforced aluminum honeycomb supports with graphite tape caps in the external barrel of its nose cowl and its upper and 2 lower cowl doors, the nacelle, 21.1 feet long, was 4.5 feet longer than the JT8D-9's and for that reason provided engineering difficulties relative to its installing on the DC-9's, albeit longer, body.

The DC-9 Super 80 kept the hydraulically-retractable, tricycle, dual-wheeled, Cleveland Pneumatic undercarriage, fitted with Goodyear wheels, tires, and disc brakes; Hydro-Aire Mk IIIA antiskid systems; and Douglas ran air brake cooling. The nose wheel was steerable to 27 degrees to either side.

Although the Super 80 kept a typical pilot type score with the DC-9, it nonetheless provided a number of cockpit developments, consisting of a digital and flight assistance control system developed by the Sperry Flight Systems Department of Sperry Rand Corporation, which incorporated the efficiency of 7 flight control subsystems into 2 similar digital computer systems; cathode ray tube (CRT) shows; a digital fuel amount gauge system; a dial-a-flap system; and Classification IIIA autoland ability of 50-foot choice height (DH) and 700 feet of runway visual variety (RVR).|The Super 80 kept a typical pilot type score with the DC-9, it nonetheless provided a number of cockpit developments, consisting of a digital and flight assistance control system developed by the Sperry Flight Systems Department of Sperry Rand Corporation, which incorporated the efficiency of 7 flight control subsystems into 2 similar digital computer systems; cathode ray tube (CRT) shows; a digital fuel amount gauge system; a dial-a-flap system; and Classification IIIA autoland ability of 50-foot choice height (DH) and 700 feet of runway visual variety (RVR). A later on presented Electronic Efficiency Management System offered automated pitch and thrust to effectuate optimal speed and fuel burn throughout the airplane's climb, cruise, and descent profiles.

The 101-foot-long, "broad appearance" cabin, included a broad, contoured, and shaped acoustically-treated ceiling which mixed in with the enclosable overhead storage compartments; aluminum sidewall panels shaped round the windows; fluorescent lighting; a 19-inch aisle; and five-abreast, two-three or three-two, configured economy class seating, which minimized by half the variety of middle seats typically connected with six-abreast plans.

Interior decoration, which differed from conservative, business-oriented visit to strong patterns and brilliant colors, was identified by the operator and custom-made by McDonnell-Douglas whose interior decoration groups frequently made journeys to airline company house nations in order to take in regional culture and customizeds and after that transform that experience into location- or country-reflective themes. Wool and wool artificial blends were standardly utilized for seat covers and carpets.

Class and seating setup similarly differed inning accordance with operator. A 137-passenger, dual-class plan, for example, involved 12 four-abreast very first class seats at a 38-inch pitch and 125 five-abreast economy class seats at a 34-inch pitch, while single-class densities consisted of 155 travelers at a 32/33-inch pitch, 167 charter seats at a 30-inch pitch, or an optimum of 172 high-density travelers, the latter accommodatable with a single galley setup.

Interior sound decrease was achieved by ways of an insulating blanket of fabric-reinforced Mylar over fiberglass. The lengthened DC-9 presented a brand-new pressurization and air flow system, which changed cabin air at higher frequencies, and its drinkable water supply included in-line heating units in all of its water lines. An increased-capacity auxiliary power system (APU) ran its environmental protection system on the ground.

The airplane's longer fuselage considerably increased its lower-deck luggage and freight compartment volume, whose forward, center, and aft holds respectively included 434, 376, and 443 cubic feet.

The DC-9-80 kept 80 percent of the DC-9-50's essential upkeep functions.

Like all its earlier, shorter-fuselage predecessors, the airplane had actually been developed for short-sector, rapid-turnaround, self-dependent operations from brief, limited-facility airfields, with its increased thrust, larger-area wings, self-contained airstairs, auxiliary power system for ecological conditioning and engine starts, low-to-ground profile to help with maintenance, packing, and upkeep, and capability to run 2 or more sectors without the requirement for refueling. Many turn-arounds needed bit more than luggage carts.

With an optimal structural payload of 40,112 pounds, the DC-9-81, as designated in its preliminary variation, had a 147,000-pound gross weight, although this had actually been later on increased to 149,500 pounds with uprated engines, and an optimum landing weight of 128,000 pounds. Its typical and optimal cruise speeds were, respectively, Mach 0.76 and 0.80. Variety, with 155 single-class travelers and domestic reserves, was 1,564 nautical miles.

Piloted by Douglas Chief Engineering Pilot H. H. "Knick" Knickerbocker, Job Pilot John P. Laine, and Flight Test Engineer Virginia "Ginny" A. Claire, the very first DC-9 Super 80 and the 909th twin-jet to roll off the Long Beach assembly line, made its first flight from Long Beach Municipal Airport's Runway 30 on October 18, 1979 with call indication DACO 80-- for "Douglas Airplane Business 80." Following a 25-mile circular, overwater pattern, the long, slender-fuselage airplane, accommodating 13,100 pounds of test devices, finished an effective two-hour, 50-minute basic-maneuvers test sortie prior to landing at McDonnell-Douglas's Flight Operations Center in Yuma, Arizona, where the Chief Engineering Pilot concluded, "The ground handling of the Super 80 is even much better than the other DC-9s. It likewise appeared rather steady in flight ... The brand-new engines were irreproachable, and the reverse thrust was extremely efficient on landing ... I think the Super 80 is a terrific plane and will measure up to all our expectations."

The 1,085-hour, $36 million, three-aircraft flight test program, which involved very first flights of model N1002G on December 6, 1979 and N1002W on February 29, 1980, resulted in FAA accreditation 7 months later on, on August 26, under a change to the DC-9's initial type certificate.

Very first provided to introduce client Swissair on September 12, which had actually run previously DC-9-15, -30, and-- 50 series, it was inaugurated into scheduled service on October 5 from Zurich to Frankfurt, ending up being the quietest industrial pure-jet.|Provided to introduce client Swissair on September 12, which had actually run previously DC-9-15, -30, and-- 50 series, it was inaugurated into scheduled service on October 5 from Zurich to Frankfurt, ending up being the quietest industrial pure-jet. Co-launch client Austrian Airline companies, which had actually similarly run a fleet of DC-9-30s and-- 50s, inaugurated its very first income service 21 days later on, on October 26, from Vienna to Zurich.

In order to embrace the McDonnell-Douglas classification plan, the DC-9-80, or DC-9 Super 80, was rebranded the "MD-80" in 1983, its preliminary variation called "MD-81."

II

Advancement of the standard Pratt and Whitney JT8D-209 engine, leading to the uprated, 20,000 thrust-pound-- 217, enhanced extra variations, the origin which had actually been the 1979 requirement for a brief remove and landing (STOL) airplane to run within the Japanese domestic market. A then-projected version, designated DC-9 Super 80SF, would have mated the DC-9-40's fuselage with the DC-9-80's wing and engines, however the higher-thrust JT8D-217, used to existing fuselage measurements, would have offered the majority of the preferred efficiency. Resultantly, a 2nd variation, designated MD-82 and very first revealed on April 16, 1979, included the uprated, 20,000 thrust-pound turbofans with 850 pounds of automated power reserve, a 44,024-pound payload, and a 2,050-mile variety with 155 travelers. First flying on January 8, 1981, it got its FAA type accreditation 6 months later on, on July 31, at a preliminary 147,000-pound optimum take off weight, although the 1982 choice of JT8D-217A engines even more increased this to 149,500 pounds, leading to still-higher payload and variety abilities.

| Flying on January 8, 1981, it got its FAA type accreditation 6 months later on, on July 31, at a preliminary 147,000-pound optimum take off weight, although the 1982 choice of JT8D-217A engines even more increased this to 149,500 pounds, resulting in still-higher payload and variety abilities.

Republic Airlines, the July 1, 1978 amalgamation of North Central and Southern Airways, had actually been the variation's launch client, having actually been the world's biggest DC-9 operator with series-- 10s, -30 s, and -50 s, to which its 8 MD-82s were ultimately included.

The variation had actually been associated with 2 distinct programs. The very first of these, happening in October of 1982, involved the ingenious lease of 20 MD-82s to American Airlines, for which McDonnell-Douglas consented to bear the upkeep and training expenses. This let to the February 1984 purchase of 67 airplane, at appealing costs and with low cancellation charges, to be provided in blocks of 10 to 25 airframes, each block which had actually been confirmable 24 months prior to the targeted shipment date. Ending up being the pillar of American's brief- to medium-range fleet to help with center connections in Chicago and Dallas, the airplane, set up for 142 very first and economy class travelers, eventually numbered 234, the world's biggest, single-type overall beyond the previous USSR.

The 2nd ingenious deal happened on April 12, 1985, when the Shanghai Air travel Industrial Corporation consented to license-build 25 MD-82s in individuals's Republic of China.

An extended-range follower, designated MD-83 and very first revealed on January 31, 1982, presented still higher-rated engines. The JT8D-219, ranked at 21,000 pounds of thrust, included a revamped low-pressure turbine, a brand-new high-pressure turbine, aerodynamically enhanced airfoils, a five-percent boost in thrust, and a two-percent decrease in fuel burn.

First flying on December 17, 1984, the twin-jet, with a 160,000-pound optimum take off weight, provided a 2,502-nautical mile variety, achieved by ways of 1,160 United States gallons of extra, lower deck hold-installed supplemental fuel tanks.|Flying on December 17, 1984, the twin-jet, with a 160,000-pound optimum take off weight, provided a 2,502-nautical mile variety, achieved by ways of 1,160 United States gallons of extra, lower deck hold-installed supplemental fuel tanks. Finnair, which had actually run the DC-9-14/ 15, -40, and-- 50, worked as the variation's launch client, running the longest, continuously MD-80 flight on November 14, 1985, when it covered the 3,406-mile range in between Montreal and Helsinki in 7 hours, 26 minutes. Transwede, of Sweden, inaugurated the very first revenue-earning trans-Atlantic flight from Stockholm to Ft. Lauderdale with intermediate drop in Oslo and Look.

In order to provide a lower-capacity equivalent better to reduced-demand sectors, and to better take on the 737-300 Boeing developed for this market, McDonnell-Douglas provided the very first, and just, dimensionally-divergent variation, the MD-87, which had actually developed from its earlier, DC-9 Super XX research studies for a 100- to 120-passenger airplane powered either by Pratt and Whitney JT8D-200 series or CFM International CFM56-3 turbofans and providing a 110,000- to 120,000-pound gross weight. The variation, with a 16.5-foot much shorter fuselage, included a brand-new, 130.5-foot general length and had a 38,726-pound optimum payload, or the like the DC-9-50's.

Since of the reduced moment-arm of the much shorter fuselage, vertical axis control needed a larger-area, ten-inch taller fin, noticeable by the extension above its conventional t-tail breeding point and leading to a brand-new, 31.2-foot general height. It likewise presented low-drag flap hinges and fairings, a fillet fairing in between the fuselage and the engine pylon, and a reduced-drag, blade-shaped tailcone.

At first powered by the 20,000 thrust-pound JT8D-217B, however later on retrofitted with the lower fuel usage-- 217C variation, the MD-87 had a 2,372-nautical mile variety with 130 travelers and domestic reserves, although extra, MD-83 type fuel tankage in the lower holds increased this to 2,833 miles.

| Powered by the 20,000 thrust-pound JT8D-217B, however later on retrofitted with the lower fuel usage-- 217C variation, the MD-87 had a 2,372-nautical mile variety with 130 travelers and domestic reserves, although extra, MD-83 type fuel tankage in the lower holds increased this to 2,833 miles.

First requiring to the skies on December 4, 1986, it got its FAA type certificate on October 21 of the list below year, and was inaugurated into service on December 17 with Austrian Airline companies from Vienna to Zagreb.

| Taking to the skies on December 4, 1986, it got its FAA type certificate on October 21 of the list below year, and was inaugurated into service on December 17 with Austrian Airline companies from Vienna to Zagreb.

The last, and a lot of advanced, of the 5 variations, the MD-88, reestablished the initial fuselage measurements and was revealed on January 23, 1986 after launch client Delta Air Lines put a preliminary order to 80 of the type. Provided with 21,000 thrust-pound JT8D-219 turbofans, the variation, a lot of carefully based upon the MD-82, included increased composite product to decrease structure weight, a brand-new traveler cabin with a larger aisle and up-to-date overhead storage compartments, and a sophisticated, glass cockpit, the latter consisted of an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS), a flight management system (FMS), and an inertial recommendation system (Internal Revenue Service). It kept the MD-87's blade-shaped tailcone.

First flying on August 15, 1987 and FAA-certified 4 months in the future December 9, the MD-88 went into scheduled service with Delta on January 5, or simply over 22 years after it had actually run the world's very first passenger-carrying service with the-- 14 series on December 8, 1965.|Flying on August 15, 1987 and FAA-certified 4 months later on December 9, the MD-88 went into scheduled service with Delta on January 5, or simply over 22 years after it had actually run the world's very first passenger-carrying service with the-- 14 series on December 8, 1965. It had actually likewise run the extended DC-9-30 and the MD-82.

III

The 1,000 th MD-80 had actually been provided on March 29, 1992, and by December of 1997, 1,150 of the type had actually remained in service with 60 around the world airline companies. The style, partly been successful by its sophisticated, re-engined MD-90 equivalent and Boeing's own Next Generation 737 household after that producer's acquisition of McDonnell-Douglas, nonetheless became its very popular pure-jet industrial airliner, surpassing sales of the DC-8, the Super DC-8, the DC-9 itself, the DC-10, the MD-11, the MD-90, and the MD-95/ 717, the last shipment which had actually happened on December 21, 1999, when an MD-83 had actually been turned over to TWA, ending twenty years of production. Integrated with the 976 sales of the initial, short-fuselage DC-9, it ended up being the 3rd very popular twin-jet after Boeing's 737 and Airplane Industrie's A-320 household, with a cumulative 2,167 airframes having actually been developed.

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